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Nature Standard - College course | Laboratory safety training
Published:2018-12-11 12:30:34    Text Size:【BIG】【MEDIUM】【SMALL

As a self-developed and production-oriented company, Nature Standard is an indispensable part of the daily operation of the company. In recent years, news reports have occurred in laboratory safety incidents. As a "killer" threat to researchers, laboratory safety issues must be valued by everyone, and high standards and strict requirements must be met during the experiment. In order to make the company employees more aware of the importance of laboratory safety, Nature Standard College invited professional lecturers to carry out laboratory safety training for the company's employees on December 4.

 

 


Safety is no small matter, prevention is greater than days

What are the laboratory area codes of conduct?

How to deal with laboratory accidents?

These security issues are receiving much attention

Today everyone follows the Nature Standard

Let's learn about laboratory safety!

 

 


To prevent problems before they happen, we should keep in mind the following rules:

 

First laboratory safety guidelines

 

1. Comply with the regulations of the laboratory, strictly implement the operating procedures, and make various records.

2. Ensure the visibility of the laboratory observation window, the safety information card should be posted at the door, and relevant information should be updated in time.

3. Keep the laboratory clean and dry on the ground, clean up the old items in time, and keep the fire exits open.

5. Enter the laboratory to understand potential safety hazards and emergency methods, and take appropriate safety precautions.

6. The experimenter should select the appropriate protective equipment according to the needs; before use, confirm the scope of use, expiration date and integrity, etc., familiar with the methods of use, maintenance and maintenance.

7. After the end of the experiment, it should be cleaned up in time; when leaving the laboratory, water, electricity, gas, doors and windows should be closed.

8. The equipment must not be turned on overnight. If necessary, necessary precautions must be taken. Special attention should be paid to air conditioners, computers, water dispensers, etc.

 

The second prevention and treatment guidelines for common accidents in laboratories

 

First, the prevention and treatment of fire accidents

When using a volatile, flammable organic solvent such as benzene, ethanol, diethyl ether or acetone, if it is handled inadvertently, it may cause a fire accident. In order to prevent accidents, you must always pay attention to the following points:

 

1. When handling and handling flammable and explosive solvents, keep away from fire; the residue of explosive solids must be carefully destroyed (such as decomposing metal acetylide with hydrochloric acid or nitric acid); do not throw unfinished matchsticks; For substances that are prone to spontaneous combustion (such as Raney nickel for hydrogenation reaction) and filter paper with them, they should not be discarded at will, so as to avoid a new source of fire and cause fire.

 

2. Before the experiment, carefully check whether the instrument is correct, stable and strict; the operation requirements are correct and strict; during normal pressure operation, do not cause the system to be closed, otherwise explosion accidents may occur; for liquids with boiling points below 80 °C, generally When distilling, it should be heated by water bath. It can't be heated directly by fire. In the experimental operation, the organic vapor should be prevented from leaking out, and not by the open device. To remove the solvent, it must be done in a fume hood.

 

3. It is not allowed to store large quantities of flammable materials in the laboratory.

 

In the event of a fire in the experiment, you should not be panicked and should remain calm. First cut off all sources of ignition and power in the room immediately. Then rescue and extinguish the fire according to the specific situation. Common methods are:

 

1. When the flammable liquid is burning, immediately remove all flammable substances in the fire area and turn off the ventilator to prevent the combustion from expanding.

2. When alcohol and other water-soluble liquids catch fire, they can be extinguished with water.

3. When the organic solvent such as gasoline, ether or toluene is on fire, use asbestos cloth or dry sand to extinguish. Never use water, otherwise it will increase the burning area.

4. When the metal potassium, sodium or lithium is on fire, it must not be used: water, foam fire extinguisher, carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride, etc., can be extinguished with dry sand and graphite powder.

5. When the electrical equipment wires are on fire, do not use water and carbon dioxide fire extinguishers (foam fire extinguishers) to avoid electric shock. The power should be turned off before using a carbon dioxide or carbon tetrachloride fire extinguisher.

6. When the clothes are on fire, do not run. Immediately cover them with asbestos cloth or thick outer coat, or quickly take off your clothes. When the fire is strong, you should roll on the floor to extinguish the flame.

7. When the oven is found to have odor or smoke, the power should be cut off quickly, slowly cooled, and the fire extinguisher should be ready for use. Do not rush to open the oven door to avoid sudden supply of air to help burn (explosion), causing fire.

8. Pay attention to the protection of the scene in the event of a fire. A large fire accident should be reported immediately. If there is a serious injury, it should be sent to the hospital immediately.

9. Familiar with the location of fire extinguishing equipment in the laboratory and how to use the fire extinguisher.

There are three things to do in the event of a fire:

Will report to the fire;

Fire facilities will be used to save the initial fire;

Will escape from life.

 

Second, the prevention and treatment of explosion accidents

 

1. Some compounds are prone to explosion. Such as: peroxides in organic compounds, aromatic polynitro compounds and nitrates, dry diazonium salts, azides, heavy metal acetylides, etc., are explosive materials, should pay special attention to the use and operation . When the peroxide-containing ether is distilled, there is a danger of explosion, and the peroxide must be removed beforehand. If there is a peroxide, it can be removed by adding an acidic solution of ferrous sulfate. Aromatic polynitro compounds are not suitable for drying in an oven. The combination of ethanol and concentrated nitric acid can cause a very strong explosion.

 

2. Incorrect or incorrect operation of the instrument may sometimes cause an explosion. If distillation or heating is carried out under normal pressure, the instrument must be connected to the atmosphere. Be careful when distilling, do not evaporate the material. Glass instruments that are not resistant to external pressure (such as flat-bottomed flasks and Erlenmeyer flasks, etc.) cannot be used during decompression operations.

 

3. When a gas such as hydrogen, acetylene or ethylene oxide is mixed with air to a certain proportion, an explosive mixture will be formed, which will explode if exposed to an open flame. Therefore, an open flame must be strictly prohibited when using the above substances. For the synthesis reaction with a large amount of heat release, carefully add the material slowly, and pay attention to the cooling, and at the same time prevent the leakage of the piston of the dropping funnel.

 

Third, the prevention and treatment of poisoning accidents

 

Many of the reagents in the experiment were toxic. Toxic substances often cause poisoning through respiratory inhalation, skin infiltration, and ingestion.

 

When handling irritating, malodorous and toxic chemicals, such as H2S, NO2, Cl2, Br2, CO, SO2, SO3, HCl, HF, concentrated nitric acid, fuming sulfuric acid, concentrated hydrochloric acid, acetyl chloride, etc., must be in the fume hood In progress. After the fume hood is opened, do not put your head into the cabinet and keep the laboratory well ventilated.

 

In the experiment, direct contact with chemicals should be avoided, especially for direct contact with drugs. Organic matter on the skin should be washed away immediately with plenty of water and soap. Do not wash with organic solvents, as this will only increase the rate at which chemicals penetrate the skin.

 

Organic matter splashed on the table or the ground should be removed in time.

The highly toxic substances used in the experiment are kept by the technical leaders of each research group, and are distributed to the users in an appropriate amount and the remaining is to be recovered. The utensils containing toxic substances should be labeled and marked, and should be cleaned in time. The operation table and the sink that often use the toxic substance test should be noted. The toxic residue after the experiment must be disposed according to the laboratory regulations, and it is not allowed to be littered.

 

In the operation of toxic substances, if you feel sore throat, discoloration or blemishes, stomach cramps or nausea and vomiting, palpitations and dizziness, it may be caused by poisoning. Immediately after giving the following first aid to the cause of poisoning, immediately send it to hospital for treatment without delay:

 

1. Solid or liquid poisoning: The toxic substance is spit out immediately in the mouth and rinsed with plenty of water. If you are eating alkali, drink plenty of water and drink some milk. Those who eat acid, drink water first, then take Mg(OH)2 emulsion, and finally drink some milk. Do not use emetics or take carbonates or bicarbonates. For heavy metal salt poisoning, drink a cup of aqueous solution containing several grams of MgSO4 and seek medical attention immediately. Do not take emetics to avoid danger or complicate your condition. People with arsenic and mercury poisoning must seek medical attention urgently.

 

2. Inhaled gas or vapor poisoning: Immediately transfer to the outside, untie the collar and buttons, and breathe fresh air. Artificial breath should be applied to the shock, but do not use the mouth-to-mouth method. Immediately send the hospital first aid.

 

Finally, and of course the most important thing, it is necessary to conduct safety experiments to avoid laboratory safety accidents.

 

Since its inception, Nature Standard College has been providing employees with professional knowledge and professional skills in the concept of “cultivating top-quality craftsmen and building healthy companies”, laying the foundation for the company's vigorous and rapid development. This training, through the explanation of laboratory accident cases, makes everyone deeply aware of the importance of laboratory safety issues. Safety experiments must be observed by every experimenter, strengthen the safety and civilization knowledge of the laboratory, start from the self, and be a self-helper. Safe and civilized experimenter!

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